diciembre 06 2023

Overview of laws applicable to mining activity


Unlike other jurisdictions, such as the US and Angola, the UK does not have a single mining / mineral code or legislative framework. Instead, different laws and regulations apply according to the mineral type and the nature of the activities being undertaken.

Main mineral rights

Oil & Gas

Ownership of oil & gas within the land area and territorial waters of the UK is vested in the Crown, i.e. the British monarchy. Licences from the Oil & Gas Authority – the authority responsible under the Petroleum Act 1998 for regulating offshore and onshore oil & gas operations, including exploration and production, licensing, and infrastructure – are required to explore and exploit all oil & gas resources. For offshore oil & gas operations, there are some differences to the permitting regime which, for example, requires operators to obtain permits from the UK Government department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy ("BEIS") for discharges of oil or chemicals. Consent from the BEIS is also required to commence hydraulic fracturing.

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