The mining and metals sector has hit the headlines in recent months as a result of a campaign spearheaded by the charity, ActionAid, concerning the proposals of London-listed Vedanta, to open a bauxite mine and alumina refinery in Orissa, India. While this is not the first time the industry has been embroiled in controversy concerning developments in sensitive areas, the case provides an interesting example of a growing phenomenon among NGOs and campaign group: shareholder activism.