In 2009, the Russian legislator amended Russia’s law “On Protection of Competition” No. 135-FZ (the new Law). In parallel with the adoption of the new Law, the government of Russia issued Resolution No. 583 “On Permissible Agreements Between Undertakings” (the Resolution No. 583) on the application of part 2 of Article 11 of the new Law (part 2 of Article 11 of the new Law prohibits agreements by undertakings and/or concerted practices other than those falling under part 1 of Article 11 and except for vertical agreements exempt under Article 12 that have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition) to categories of vertical agreements and research and development agreements. The Resolution, which has a five-year sunset provision, went into effect on 31 July 2009.