In an arbitration panel decision handed down on 31 August 2009, the World Trade Organization (WTO) clarified how and to what extent the industries of a WTO Member government may be targeted for countermeasures when the government has provided WTO-illegal subsidies. Brazil had been seeking $2.68 billion in countermeasures, threatening to “cross-retaliate” by targeting US intellectual property rights and service businesses. However, the panel awarded only $294.7 million for fiscal year 2006.

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